Function Composition | #2629 | LeetCode Solution

Author: neptune | 09th-Sep-2023
#JavaScript #LeetCode

Problem : Function Composition | #2629 | LeetCode

Given an array of functions [f1, f2, f3, ..., fn], return a new function fn that is the function composition of the array of functions.

The function composition of [f(x), g(x), h(x)] is fn(x) = f(g(h(x))).

The function composition of an empty list of functions is the identity function f(x) = x.

You may assume each function in the array accepts one integer as input and returns one integer as output.


Example 1:

Input: functions = [x => x + 1, x => x * x, x => 2 * x], x = 4

Output: 65

Explanation:

Evaluating from right to left ...

Starting with x = 4.

2 * (4) = 8

(8) * (8) = 64

(64) + 1 = 65

Example 2:

Input: functions = [x => 10 * x, x => 10 * x, x => 10 * x], x = 1

Output: 1000

Explanation:

Evaluating from right to left ...

10 * (1) = 10

10 * (10) = 100

10 * (100) = 1000

Example 3:

Input: functions = [], x = 42

Output: 42

Explanation:

The composition of zero functions is the identity function


Solution:

         /**

     * @param {Function[]} functions

     * @return {Function}

     */

    var compose = function (functions) {

        return function (x) {

            if (functions.length === 0) {

                return x;

            } else {

                let result = x;

                for (let i = functions.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {

                    result = functions[i](result);

                }

                return result;

            }

        }

    };


    /**

     * const fn = compose([x => x + 1, x => 2 * x])

     * fn(4) // 9

     */


Explanation:

Let's break down the code step by step:


1. The code defines a function called `compose` which takes one parameter, `functions`. It's intended to create a new function by composing an array of functions together.


2. Inside the `compose` function, a new function is returned. This returned function takes one parameter, `x`, which is the input value to be processed by the composed functions.


3. The function checks if the `functions` array is empty by examining its length using `functions.length === 0`. If it's empty, it simply returns the input value `x` because there are no functions to apply.


4. If the `functions` array is not empty, the code initialises a variable `result` with the value of `x`. This variable will be used to accumulate the result of applying the composite functions.


5. It then enters a `for` loop that iterates through the `functions` array in reverse order, starting from the last function in the array and moving towards the first.


6. Inside the loop, each function in the `functions` array is applied to the `result`, and the updated value is stored back in the `result` variable. This effectively composes the functions in reverse order, with the last function being applied first.


7. After the loop has processed all the functions, the final `result` value represents the output of applying the composite functions to the input `x`.


8. The final `result` value is returned as the result of the function created by `compose`.


In summary, the `compose` function takes an array of functions and returns a new function that applies these functions to an input value `x`, composing them in reverse order. This allows you to create a single function that combines multiple functions to process input data. In the example provided, `compose` is used to create a new function `fn` that applies two functions: `x => x + 1` and `x => 2 * x`, resulting in the output `9` when `fn(4)` is called.





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